The article discusses several issues relevant for the annotation of written and spoken corpus data with information structure. We discuss ways to identify focus top-down (via Questions under Discussion) or bottom-up (starting from pitch accents). We introduce a two-dimensional labelling scheme for information status and propose a way to distinguish between contrastive and noncontrastive information. Moreover, we take side in a current debate, claiming that focus is triggered by two sources: newness and elicited alternatives (contrast). This may lead to a high number of semantic-pragmatic foci in a single sentence. In each prosodic phrase there can be one primary focus (marked by a nuclear pitch accent) and several secondary foci (marked by weaker prosodic prominence). Second occurrence focus is one instance of secondary focus.
9 Figures and Tables
Figure 1: PRAAT (Boersma and Weenink, 1996) screenshot; DIRNDL s1222, 26-03-2007, 06:00, 7’12”: in the former slave trading post Elmina
Table 1: Overview of basic RefLex scheme
Figure 2: Basic target units for RefLex annotations
Table 2: Alternative-eliciting features
Figure 3: Sentence annotated in SALTO, DIRNDL s165, 25-03-2007, 5:00: A strong earthquake has hit central Japan.
Table 3: (Non-)contrastive focus on 3842 (intonation-phrase final) nuclear pitch accents
Figure 4: Novelty focus; DIRNDL s1790, 26-03-2007, 18:00, 3’20”: has signed the bill on the health care reform
Figure 5: Optional contrast; DIRNDL s1897, 26-03-2007, 20:00, 04’05”: First Minister
Figure 6: Realisation of an epithet (R-GIVEN, L-NEW); DIRNDL s1730, 26-03-2007, 17:00, 0’31”:
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